The Prezwalski’s horse is an endangered equid native to the steppes of Central Asia. Named after the Russian explorer Nikolai Przewalski, who first described them in the late 19th century, these horses have a robust build, a thick, upright mane, and a dun coat with dark legs.

Recognized as the last surviving wild horse, Przewalski’s horses are genetically distinct from their domesticated relatives. These primitive horses have 66 chromosomes, two more than domestic horses.

While the lineages of modern domesticated horses and Przewalski’s horses diverged before domestication, recent research has sparked a debate over the true ‘wild’ status of the Przewalski’s bloodline.

Hunting, habitat loss, and capture have led to the extinction of the wild population. Today, captive breeding programs aim to preserve this ancient equid and reintroduce Przewalski’s herds to their native habitat.

This article will discuss the history, characteristics, and conservation of Przewalski’s horses. Keep reading to learn what makes these horses different from domestic breeds and the importance of conserving their unique lineage.

Przewalski’s Horse History

Throughout history, Przewalski’s horses remained wild, even as their domesticated counterparts spread across the globe and transformed human civilizations.

These rare horses roamed the earth for millennia, but were relatively unknown until their first formal scientific description in the 19th century. Today, Prezwalski’s horses are classified as critically endangered, representing an important conservation priority for humankind.

Preserving this species is especially important because they are considered by many to be the last remaining type of wild horse in existence. The “wild” Mustangs and Brumbies of North America and Australia actually descend from feral domestic horses, and are not truly wild.


These primitive horses get their name from the Russian colonel and explorer Nikolai Przhevalsky, whose last name is pronounced “sheh-VAHL-skee.”

In 1881, Western scientists used the description and specimens provided by Przhevalsky to classify the wild horses he observed near the modern Chinese-Mongolian border. They named the species Equus przewalskii based on the Polish spelling of Przhevalsky’s name. [1]

The American Society of Mammalogists classifies the Przewalski’s horse as a subspecies of Equus ferus, the scientific name for undomesticated horses. In trinomial nomenclature, they are referred to as Equus ferus przewalskii.

In Mongolia, Przewalski’s horses are known as takhi, a name reflecting their revered status in the region’s culture and ecosystem.


Research suggests domesticated horses and Prezwalski’s horses share a common ancestor. [2] DNA analysis from ancient horse bones and whole genome sequencing indicates these two groups diverged between 38,000 – 72,000 years ago, with later genomic studies estimating that this divergence occurred 45,000 years ago. [2][3]

The first signs of horse domestication trace back to around 3500 BC, with archaeological findings at an ancient Botai settlement in what is now northern Kazakhstan. These findings include evidence of horse harnessing, milking, and corralling. [4]

Intriguingly, a genomic study conducted in 2018 discovered that ancient Botai horses shared DNA markers with the modern Przewalski’s lineage, while domestic breeds only had minimal (about 2.7%) Botai-related ancestry. [5] These results suggest Przewalski’s horses may descend from horses once domesticated by the Botai people.

If the Botai people had indeed briefly domesticated the ancestors of Przewalski’s horses, this means that a truly wild horse lineage no longer exists.

However, one study provided a different perspective on the domestication status Botai horses. It suggested that the dental wear found in horse remains was likely caused by natural factors, not by bridle equipment. This discovery implies that the Botai people might have used Przewalski’s horses primarily for consumption, rather than for riding or as pulling animals. [6]

Range and Habitat

Archeological remains suggest horses from the Przewalski’s lineage lived throughout Central Asia between the 5th and 3rd millennia BC. [7] These horses remained elusive, only appearing sporadically in the historical record.

The Buddhist Monk Bodowa wrote about them in the 9th century AD. Ghengis Khan reportedly encountered wild horses during his conquest of Mongolia in the 13th century. [8]

The Scottish doctor John Bell claimed he saw these wild horses in present-day Siberia in the early 18th century. By their first scientific characterization, wild Przewalski’s horses only lived in the Dzungarian Basin of the Gobi Desert. [8]

The wild animal merchant Carl Hagenbeck captured Przewalski’s horses in the Gobi to transport them back to Europe. The last recorded wild Przewalski’s horses inhabited this region until the late 1960s. [8]

Research suggests hunting and habitat loss from agricultural grazing drove Przewalski’s off their natural habitat on the steppe and into the inhospitable desert environment. [8]

Mad About Horses
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