Miniature Horses are the smallest horse breed in the world. Originating from Shetlands and other pony breeds, modern breeding programs aim to produce minis with physical characteristics that resemble full-sized horses in a smaller package.

Minis are too small for riding. But these pint-sized horses have gained popularity with owners of all ages as companions, show horses, driving horses and even guide animals for blind people.

However, the selective breeding responsible for their small size also increase the risk of several health problems in Miniature Horses. These horses have unique management needs compared to their full-sized cousins.

This article will review the origin, history, characteristics, health problems, and nutritional needs of the Miniature Horse breed. Keep reading to learn more about caring for and feeding Minis.

Miniature Horse Breed History

While small ancestors of horses existed in prehistoric times, it took centuries of selective breeding to produce the Miniature Horses we know today. The short stature that once allowed them to work as pit ponies now makes the breed a beloved companion animal.


The small size of some prehistoric horse breeds was a result of harsh climates and limited feed supply. Today, the modern Miniature Horse’s stature is the product of strategic breeding programs focusing specifically on size. [1]

Miniature Horses today can trace their lineage to 18th-century Europe, with articles and paintings from as early as 1765 depicting tiny equines that fascinated nobility and performed jobs that full-size horses couldn’t.

Shetland Ponies served as the foundation breed of Miniature horses. Small horses from other breeds, such as the Hackney, were crossed with the ponies to refine the breed further.

Distinct types of Miniature horses arose from regional breeding programs. One example is the Falabella, a miniature breed developed in Argentina in the mid-1800s by Patrick Newtall and his son-in-law, Juan Falabella. [1]

Historic Use

Miniature horses were bred during the Renaissance as pets for European nobility. However, not all historical minis led pampered lives. These small equines also worked in Northern European coal mines as pit ponies, their size being an advantage for underground work.

English and Dutch pit ponies crossed the Atlantic to the United States in the 19th century, and their descendants worked in Appalachian coal mines as late as 1950. [2]

While records indicate the first small horse was imported to North America by 1888, American Miniature Horses had little public awareness until 1960.

Breed Registry

The American Miniature Horse Association maintains the largest registry of Miniature Horses globally, with over 240,000 minis registered by members in 38 countries.

The AMHAwas founded in 1978 in Arlington, Texas, to promote mini horses in North America. Horses must meet the height breed standards to be eligible for registration with the AMHA.

In 1987, the association closed the studbook and began limiting registration to offspring from AMHA-registered parents to preserve the breed’s integrity.

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Breed Characteristics

Miniature Horses are about the same size as large dogs, but the breed packs a lot of personality into their small size. These horses are also surprisingly versatile and stand apart from other small breeds thanks to their elegant conformation.


Miniature Horses cannot exceed 34 inches in height at the withers. The ideal Mini is a small version of a well-balanced horse, with conformational proportions closer to full-size light breeds than popular pony breeds.

Their conformation and movement should give a general impression of symmetry, agility, strength, and alertness regardless of size. When breeding prioritizes size over soundness, the resulting offspring may have conformational faults that compromise the animal’s health.


Miniature horses can be any coat colour. All white markings and coat patterns are considered acceptable in the breed.


Temperaments can vary depending on the mini’s personality, but most Miniatures have willing temperaments and gentle dispositions. These horses are often intelligent, curious, and playful.

Although these horses are significantly smaller than other breeds, proper handling and training are still essen